Cocaine affects the blood vessels within the nose and repeated use can damage the septum such that a hole develops. If the hole becomes large, it compromises the structural integrity of the septum and the nose begins to collapse. This results in the bridge of the nose taking on a concave shape, i.e. a saddle nose. Nasal function is also impaired as breathing becomes more difficult and mucus production increases. Since the amount of septal cartilage remaining is often inadequate to repair these deformities, rib cartilage grafting is frequently employed by Dr. Losquadro.